New quantum nanodevice can simultaneously act as a heat engine and a refrigerator  December 28, 2020 An international team of researchers (Japan, Ukraine, USA – University of Michigan) has experimentally demonstrated the quantum version of the heat engine which uses an electron in a transistor. The electron has two possible energy states. The team could increase or decrease the gap between these energy states by applying an electric field and microwaves. This can be analogous to the periodic expanding–compressing operation of a fluid in a chamber. The device also emitted microwaves when the electron went from the high-energy level to the lower one. By monitoring whether the upper energy level was occupied, […]